Hardy medium-sized tree fern with black trunk, growing 25cm annually and reaching 2 – 7m height. Capable of reproducing itself via buds on underground runners, and from harvested or fallen trunks. Flattish crown. Sustains moderate frost. Tolerates range of soils. Shade and sun tolerant. Found in lowland and hill forests up to 800m altitude throughout the country, including Stewart, Chatham, and Three kings Islands. Shorter fronds so ideal planted in smaller gardens.