Faster growing large black-trunked slim tree-fern growing to 15-18m at the rate of 30cm per year until ten years when growth rate slows. Broadly horizontal mildly convex crown up to 10-14m wide. Found in lowland and hilly forest terrain and on partially open sites up to 600m altitude throughout the country. Prefers moist mild conditions. Cannot sustain heavy frosts, major drought, or strong winds. Used for food and medicines by early Maori. Ideal in ornamental plantings on cool moist sites with root zones protected by shade.

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